Non-ideal thermodynamic modelling: implementation of real-fluid thermodynamics through NIST Refprop and PC-SAFT EoS.

Phase diagram of a Dodecane/Nitrogen mixture

Transcritical/Supercritical mixing: at high pressures/temperatures fuel/gas mixing in the combustion chamber departs classical atomisation and resembles more diffusive mixing.

Dodecane jet (600m/s, 363K) mixing with nitrogen (110bar, 963K)

ECN-Spray A: a characteristic benchmark for Diesel fuel sprays is the ECN Spray-A. Such conditions have been investigated to validate the proposed methods and tools.

Rendering of standard Spray-A case: dodecane injection (1500bar/363K) to nitrogen (60bar/900K). Visualisation of vortical structures.

Injector transients: During the opening and closing of fuel injectors, transient effects become important with the ingestion/release of gas/vapor and significant heating due to low needle lift.

ECN Spray-D case: formation of cavitation during injector closure.

ECN Spray-G: A characteristic benchmark of gasoline fuel sprays is ECN Spray G. Such conditions have been investigated to validate computational tools and examine the fuel distribution at different distances from the injector.

Rendering of ECN Spray G at flashing conditions. The volume rendering represents the liquid volume fraction.

Experiments for gasoline and diesel sprays: a 3D computed tomography technique has been extended to obtain volumetric distributions of liquid volume fraction of sprays.

3D tomographic reconstruction of gasoline sprays.
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